Notice:
Some of the examples below are referenced from ClickHouse Documentation but have been adapted and modified to work in ByteHouse.

array

Creates an array from the function arguments.

The arguments must be constants and have types that have the smallest common type. At least one argument must be passed, because otherwise it isn’t clear which type of array to create. That is, you can’t use this function to create an empty array (to do that, use the ‘emptyArray*’ function described above).

Syntax

array(x1, …)

Arguments

  • x1,... – must be constants and have types that have the smallest common type

Returned value

  • Returns an ‘Array(T)’ type result, where ‘T’ is the smallest common type out of the passed arguments.

Example

SELECT array(1,2,3);
┌─array(1, 2, 3)─┐
│ [1, 2, 3]      │
└────────────────┘

arrayAll

Returns 1 if func returns something other than 0 for all the elements in arr . Otherwise, it returns 0.
Note that the arrayAll is a higher-order function. You can pass a lambda function to it as the first argument.

Syntax

arrayAll([func,] arr1, …)

Arguments

  • func – higher-order function which must return UInt8
  • arr1,.. - arrays as input for func

Returned value

  • Returns 1 if func returns something other than 0 for all the elements in arr

Example

SELECT arrayAll((x,y)->x==y,[1,2,3],[4,5,6]);
┌─arrayAll(lambda(tuple(x, y), equals(x, y)), [1, 2, 3], [4, 5, 6])─┐
│ 0                                                                 │
└───────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────┘
SELECT arrayAll((x,y)->x==y,[1,2,3],[1,2,3]);
┌─arrayAll(lambda(tuple(x, y), equals(x, y)), [1, 2, 3], [1, 2, 3])─┐
│ 1                                                                 │
└───────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────┘

arrayConcat

Combines arrays passed as arguments.

Syntax

arrayConcat(arrays)

Arguments

  • arrays – Arbitrary number of arguments of Array type.

Returned value

  • A combined array.

Example

SELECT arrayConcat([1, 2], [3, 4], [5, 6]) AS res
┌─res───────────┐
│ [1,2,3,4,5,6] │
└───────────────┘

arrayCount

Returns the number of elements in the arr array for which func returns something other than 0. If ‘func’ is not specified, it returns the number of non-zero elements in the array.

Note that the arrayCount is a higher-order function. You can pass a lambda function to it as the first argument.

Syntax

arrayCount([func,] arr1, …)

Arguments

  • func – higher-order function which must return UInt8
  • arr1,.. - arrays as input for func

Returned value

  • number of elements in the arr array for which func returns something other than 0

Example

SELECT arrayCount((x,y)->x==y,[1,2,3],[1,5,3]);
┌─arrayCount(lambda(tuple(x, y), equals(x, y)), [1, 2, 3], [1, 5, 3])─┐
│ 2                                                                   │
└─────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────┘

arrayCumSum

Returns an array of partial sums of elements in the source array (a running sum). If the func function is specified, then the values of the array elements are converted by this function before summing.

Note that the arrayCumSum is a higher-order function. You can pass a lambda function to it as the first argument.

Syntax

arrayCumSum([func,] arr1, …)

Arguments

  • func – higher-order function
  • arr1,.. - arrays as input for func

Returned value

  • An array of partial sums of elements in the source array

Example

SELECT arrayCumSum([1, 1, 1, 1]) AS res
┌─res──────────┐
│ [1, 2, 3, 4] │
└──────────────┘
SELECT arrayCumSum(x->x+1,[1, 1, 1, 1]) AS res
┌─res──────────┐
│ [2, 4, 6, 8] │
└──────────────┘

arrayCumSumNonNegative

Same as arrayCumSum , returns an array of partial sums of elements in the source array (a running sum). Different arrayCumSum , when returned value contains a value less than zero, the value is replace with zero and the subsequent calculation is performed with zero parameters. For example:

Note that the arraySumNonNegative is a higher-order function. You can pass a lambda function to it as the first argument.

Syntax

arrayCumSumNonNegative([func,] arr1, …)

Arguments

  • func – higher-order function
  • arr1,.. - arrays as input for func

Returned value

  • An array of partial sums of elements in the source array

Example

SELECT arrayCumSumNonNegative([1, 1, -4, 1]) AS res
┌─res──────────┐
│ [1, 2, 0, 1] │
└──────────────┘
SELECT arrayCumSumNonNegative(x->x-2,[1, 1, -4, 3]) AS res
┌─res──────────┐
│ [0, 0, 0, 1] │
└──────────────┘

arrayDifference

Calculates the difference between adjacent array elements. Returns an array where the first element will be 0, the second is the difference between a[1] - a[0] , etc. The type of elements in the resulting array is determined by the type inference rules for subtraction (e.g. UInt8 - UInt8 = Int16 ).

Syntax

arrayDifference(array)

Arguments

  • array – an Array.

Returned values
Returns an array of differences between adjacent elements.
Type: UInt, Int, Float*.

Example

SELECT arrayDifference([1, 2, 3, 4]);
┌─arrayDifference([1, 2, 3, 4])─┐
│ [0, 1, 1, 1]                  │
└───────────────────────────────┘

Example of the overflow due to result type Int64:

SELECT arrayDifference([0, 10000000000000000000]);
┌─arrayDifference([0, 10000000000000000000])─┐
│ [0, -8446744073709551616]                  │
└────────────────────────────────────────────┘

arrayDistinct

Takes an array, returns an array containing the distinct elements only.

Syntax

arrayDistinct(array)

Arguments

  • array – an Array.

Returned values

  • Returns an array containing the distinct elements.

Example

SELECT arrayDistinct([1, 2, 2, 3, 1]);
┌─arrayDistinct([1, 2, 2, 3, 1])─┐
│ [1, 2, 3]                      │
└────────────────────────────────┘

arrayElement

Get the element with the index n from the array arr . n must be any integer type.
Indexes in an array begin from one.

Negative indexes are supported. In this case, it selects the corresponding element numbered from the end. For example, arr[-1] is the last item in the array.

If the index falls outside of the bounds of an array, it returns some default value (0 for numbers, an empty string for strings, etc.), except for the case with a non-constant array and a constant index 0 (in this case there will be an error Array indices are 1-based ).

Syntax

arrayElement(array, n)

Arguments

  • array – an Array.
  • n - an Index in the array.

Returned values

  • Get the element with the index n from the array arr

Example

SELECT arrayElement([1, 2, 2, 3, 1],3);
┌─arrayElement([1, 2, 2, 3, 1], 3)─┐
│ 2                                │
└──────────────────────────────────┘

arrayEnumerate

Returns the array [1, 2, 3, … ]

This function is normally used with ARRAY JOIN. It allows counting something just once for each array after applying ARRAY JOIN.

Syntax

arrayEnumerate(arr)

Arguments

  • arr – an Array.

Returned values

  • Returns the array [1, 2, 3, … ]

Example

SELECT number, num FROM numbers(5) ARRAY JOIN arrayEnumerate([1,2,3]) as num
┌─number─┬─num─┐
│ 0      │ 1   │
│ 0      │ 2   │
│ 0      │ 3   │
│ 1      │ 1   │
│ 1      │ 2   │
│ 1      │ 3   │
│ 2      │ 1   │
│ 2      │ 2   │
│ 2      │ 3   │
│ 3      │ 1   │
│ 3      │ 2   │
│ 3      │ 3   │
│ 4      │ 1   │
│ 4      │ 2   │
│ 4      │ 3   │
└────────┴─────┘

arrayEnumerateDense

Returns an array of the same size as the source array, indicating where each element first appears in the source array.

Syntax

arrayEnumerateDense(arr)

Arguments

  • arr – an Array.

Returned values

  • An array where each element first appears in the source array

Example

SELECT arrayEnumerateDense([10, 20, 10, 30])
┌─arrayEnumerateDense([10, 20, 10, 30])─┐
│ [1, 2, 1, 3]                          │
└───────────────────────────────────────┘

arrayEnumerateUniq

Returns an array the same size as the source array, indicating for each element what its position is among elements with the same value.

For example: arrayEnumerateUniq([10, 20, 10, 30]) = [1, 1, 2, 1].

This function is useful when using ARRAY JOIN and aggregation of array elements.

Syntax

arrayEnumerateUniq(arr, …)

Arguments

  • arr – an Array.

Returned values

  • Returns an array the same size as the source array, indicating for each element what its position is among elements with the same value.

Example

SELECT arrayEnumerateUniq([10, 20, 10, 30]) as res
┌─res──────────┐
│ [1, 1, 2, 1] │
└──────────────┘

The arrayEnumerateUniq function can take multiple arrays of the same size as arguments. In this case, uniqueness is considered for tuples of elements in the same positions in all the arrays.

SELECT arrayEnumerateUniq([1, 1, 1, 2, 2, 2], [1, 1, 2, 1, 1, 2]) AS res
┌─res────────────────┐
│ [1, 2, 1, 1, 2, 1] │
└────────────────────┘

This is necessary when using ARRAY JOIN with a nested data structure and further aggregation across multiple elements in this structure.

arrayExists

Returns 1 if there is at least one element in arr for which func returns something other than 0. Otherwise, it returns 0.

Note that the arrayExists is a higher-order function.

Syntax

arrayExists([func,] arr1, …)

Arguments

  • func – higher-order function which must return UInt8
  • arr1,.. - arrays as input for func

Returned values

  • Returns 1 if there is at least one element in arr for which func returns something other than 0. Otherwise, it returns 0.

Example

SELECT arrayExists((x,y)->x==y,[1, 2, 2, 3, 1],[4, 5, 6, 7, 8]);
┌─arrayExists(lambda(tuple(x, y), equals(x, y)), [1, 2, 2, 3, 1], [4, 5, 6, 7, 8])─┐
│ 0                                                                                │
└──────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────┘
SELECT arrayExists((x,y)->x==y,[1, 2, 2, 3, 1],[1, 5, 6, 7, 8]);
┌─arrayExists(lambda(tuple(x, y), equals(x, y)), [1, 2, 2, 3, 1], [1, 5, 6, 7, 8])─┐
│ 1                                                                                │
└──────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────┘

arrayFilter

Note that the arrayFilter is a higher-order function. You must pass a lambda function to it as the first argument, and it can’t be omitted.
Returns an array containing only the elements in arr1 for which func returns something other than 0.

Syntax

arrayFilter(func, arr1, …)

Arguments

  • func – higher-order function which must return UInt8
  • arr1,.. - arrays as input for func

Returned values

  • Returns an array containing only the elements in arr1 for which func returns something other than 0.

Example

SELECT arrayFilter(x -> x LIKE '%World%', ['Hello', 'abc World']) AS res
┌─res───────────┐
│ ['abc World'] │
└───────────────┘
SELECT arrayFilter((i, x) -> x LIKE '%World%', arrayEnumerate(arr), ['Hello', 'abc World'] AS arr) AS res
┌─res─┐
│ [2] │
└─────┘

arrayFirst

Returns the first element in the arr1 array for which func returns something other than 0.
Note that the arrayFirst is a higher-order function. You must pass a lambda function to it as the first argument, and it can’t be omitted.

Syntax

arrayFirst(func, arr1, …)

Arguments

  • func – higher-order function which must return UInt8
  • arr1,.. - arrays as input for func

Returned values

  • Returns the first element in the arr1 array for which func returns something other than 0.

Example

SELECT arrayFirst(x -> x LIKE '%World%', ['Hello World', 'abc World']) AS res
┌─res─────────┐
│ Hello World │
└─────────────┘

arrayFirstIndex

Returns the index of the first element in the arr1 array for which func returns something other than 0.

Note that the arrayFirstIndex is a higher-order function. You must pass a lambda function to it as the first argument, and it can’t be omitted.

Syntax

arrayFirstIndex(func, arr1, …) 

Arguments

  • func – higher-order function which must return UInt8
  • arr1,.. - arrays as input for func

Returned values

  • Returns the index of the first element in the arr1 array for which func returns something other than 0.

Example

SELECT arrayFirstIndex(x -> x LIKE '%World%', ['Hello World', 'abc World']) AS res
┌─res─┐
│ 1   │
└─────┘

arrayIntersect

Takes multiple arrays, returns an array with elements that are present in all source arrays. Elements order in the resulting array is the same as in the first array.

Syntax

arrayIntersect(arr)

Arguments

  • arr1,.. - multiple arrays

Returned values

  • Returns an array with elements that are present in all source arrays

Example

SELECT
    arrayIntersect([1, 2], [1, 3], [2, 3]) AS no_intersect,
    arrayIntersect([1, 2], [1, 3], [1, 4]) AS intersect
┌─no_intersect─┬─intersect─┐
│ []           │ [1]       │
└──────────────┴───────────┘

arrayJoin

This is a very unusual function.
Normal functions do not change a set of rows, but just change the values in each row (map).
Aggregate functions compress a set of rows (fold or reduce).
The ‘arrayJoin’ function takes each row and generates a set of rows (unfold).

This function takes an array as an argument, and propagates the source row to multiple rows for the number of elements in the array.

All the values in columns are simply copied, except the values in the column where this function is applied; it is replaced with the corresponding array value.

A query can use multiple arrayJoin functions. In this case, the transformation is performed multiple times.

Note the ARRAY JOIN syntax in the SELECT query, which provides broader possibilities.

Syntax

arrayJoin(arr)

Arguments

  • arr - an Array

Returned values

  • Propagates the source row to multiple rows for the number of elements in the array.

Example

SELECT arrayJoin([1, 2, 3] AS src) AS dst, 'Hello', src
┌─dst─┬─'Hello'─┬─src───────┐
│ 1   │ Hello   │ [1, 2, 3] │
│ 2   │ Hello   │ [1, 2, 3] │
│ 3   │ Hello   │ [1, 2, 3] │
└─────┴─────────┴───────────┘

arrayMap

Returns an array obtained from the original application of the func function to each element in the arr array.

Note that the arrayMap is a higher-order function. You must pass a lambda function to it as the first argument, and it can’t be omitted.

Syntax

arrayMap(func, arr1, …)

Arguments

  • func- higher-order function
  • arr1,.. - multiple arrays

Returned values

  • Returns an array obtained from the original application of the func function to each element in the arr array.

Example

SELECT arrayMap(x -> (x + 2), [1, 2, 3]) as res;
┌─res───────┐
│ [3, 4, 5] │
└───────────┘

The following example shows how to create a tuple of elements from different arrays:

SELECT arrayMap((x, y) -> (x, y), [1, 2, 3], [4, 5, 6]) AS res
┌─res──────────────────────┐
│ [(1, 4), (2, 5), (3, 6)] │
└──────────────────────────┘

arrayPopBack

Removes the last item from the array.

Syntax

arrayPopBack(array)

Arguments

  • array – Array.

Returned values

  • array – An Array removes the last item from the original array.

Example

SELECT arrayPopBack([1, 2, 3]) AS res;
┌─res────┐
│ [1, 2] │
└────────┘

arrayPopFront

Removes the first item from the array.

Arguments

  • array – Array.

Returned values

  • array – An Array removes the first item from the original array.

Example

SELECT arrayPopFront([1, 2, 3]) AS res;
┌─res────┐
│ [2, 3] │
└────────┘

arrayPushBack

Adds one item to the end of the array.

Syntax

arrayPushBack(array, single_value)

Arguments

  • array – Array.
  • single_value – A single value. Only numbers can be added to an array with numbers, and only strings can be added to an array of strings. When adding numbers, ByteHouse automatically sets the single_value type for the data type of the array. Can be NULL . The function adds a NULL element to an array, and the type of array elements converts to Nullable .

Returned values

  • array – An Array with the new item adds to the end of original array.

Example

SELECT arrayPushBack(['a'], 'b') AS res, toTypeName(arrayPushBack(['a'], 'b')) as type;
┌─res────┬─type──────────┐│ [a, b] │ Array(String) │└────────┴───────────────┘
SELECT arrayPushBack(['a'], NULL) AS res, toTypeName(arrayPushBack(['a'], NULL)) as type
┌─res───────┬─type────────────────────┐
│ [a, ᴺᵁᴸᴸ] │ Array(Nullable(String)) │
└───────────┴─────────────────────────┘

arrayPushFront

Adds one element to the beginning of the array.

Syntax

arrayPushFront(array, single_value)

Arguments

  • array – Array.
  • single_value – A single value. Only numbers can be added to an array with numbers, and only strings can be added to an array of strings. When adding numbers, ByteHouse automatically sets the single_value type for the data type of the array. Can be NULL . The function adds a NULL element to an array, and the type of array elements converts to Nullable .

Returned values

  • array – An Array with the new item adds to the beginning of original array.

Example

SELECT arrayPushFront(['b'], 'a') AS res, toTypeName(arrayPushFront(['b'], 'a')) as type;
┌─res────┬─type──────────┐
│ [a, b] │ Array(String) │
└────────┴───────────────┘
SELECT arrayPushFront(['b'], NULL) AS res, toTypeName(arrayPushFront(['b'], NULL)) as type;
┌─res───────┬─type────────────────────┐
│ [ᴺᵁᴸᴸ, b] │ Array(Nullable(String)) │
└───────────┴─────────────────────────┘

arrayReduce

Applies an aggregate function to array elements and returns its result. The name of the aggregation function is passed as a string in single quotes 'max' , 'sum' . When using parametric aggregate functions, the parameter is indicated after the function name in parentheses 'uniqUpTo(6)' .

Syntax

arrayReduce(agg_func, arr1, arr2, ..., arrN)

Arguments

  • agg_func — The name of an aggregate function which should be a constant string.
  • arr — Any number of array type columns as the parameters of the aggregation function.

Returned value

  • Result of aggregate function to array elements.

Example

SELECT arrayReduce('max', [1, 2, 3]);
┌─arrayReduce('max', [1, 2, 3])─┐│                             3 │└───────────────────────────────┘

If an aggregate function takes multiple arguments, then this function must be applied to multiple arrays of the same size.

SELECT arrayReduce('maxIf', [3, 5], [1, 0]);
┌─arrayReduce('maxIf', [3, 5], [1, 0])─┐│                                    3 │└──────────────────────────────────────┘

Example with a parametric aggregate function.

SELECT arrayReduce('uniqUpTo(3)', [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10]);
┌─arrayReduce('uniqUpTo(3)', [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10])─┐│                                                           4 │└─────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────┘

arrayResize

Changes the length of the array.

Syntax

arrayResize(array, size[, extender])

Arguments

  • array — Array.
  • size — Required length of the array.
    • If size is less than the original size of the array, the array is truncated from the right.
    • If size is larger than the initial size of the array, the array is extended to the right with extender values or default values for the data type of the array items.
  • extender — Value for extending an array. Can be NULL .

Returned value

  • An array of length size .

Examples of calls

SELECT arrayResize([1], 3);
┌─arrayResize([1], 3)─┐
│ [1, 0, 0]           │
└─────────────────────┘
SELECT arrayResize([1], 3, NULL);
┌─arrayResize([1], 3, NULL)─┐
│ [1, ᴺᵁᴸᴸ, ᴺᵁᴸᴸ]           │
└───────────────────────────┘

arrayReverse

Returns an array of the same size as the original array containing the elements in reverse order.

Syntax

arrayReverse(array)

Arguments

  • array — Array.

Returned value

  • Reversed orginal array.

Examples

SELECT arrayReverse([1, 2, 3])
┌─arrayReverse([1, 2, 3])─┐
│ [3, 2, 1]               │
└─────────────────────────┘

arrayReverseSort

Sorts the elements of the arr array in descending order. If the func function is specified, arr is sorted according to the result of the func function applied to the elements of the array, and then the sorted array is reversed. If func accepts multiple arguments, the arrayReverseSort function is passed several arrays that the arguments of func will correspond to. Detailed examples are shown at the end of arrayReverseSort description.

Note that the arrayReverseSort is a higher-order function. You can pass a lambda function to it as the first argument. Example is shown below.

Syntax

arrayReverseSort([func,] arr, …)

Arguments

  • func - sort function.
  • array — Array.

Returned value

  • Reversed sorted array.

Examples
Example of integer values sorting:

SELECT arrayReverseSort([1, 3, 3, 0]);
┌─arrayReverseSort([1, 3, 3, 0])─┐
│ [3, 3, 1, 0]                   │
└────────────────────────────────┘

Example of string values sorting:

SELECT arrayReverseSort(['hello', 'world', '!']);
┌─arrayReverseSort(['hello', 'world', '!'])─┐
│ [world, hello, !]                         │
└───────────────────────────────────────────┘

Consider the following sorting order for the NULL , NaN and Inf values:

SELECT arrayReverseSort([1, nan, 2, NULL, 3, nan, -4, NULL, inf, -inf]) as res;
┌─res─────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────┐
│ [+Inf, 3e+00, 2e+00, 1e+00, -4e+00, -Inf, NaN, NaN, ᴺᵁᴸᴸ, ᴺᵁᴸᴸ] │
└─────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────┘
  • Inf values are first in the array.
  • NULL values are last in the array.
  • NaN values are right before NULL .
  • -Inf values are right before NaN .
SELECT arrayReverseSort((x) -> -x, [1, 2, 3]) as res;
┌─res───────┐
│ [1, 2, 3] │
└───────────┘

The array is sorted in the following way:

  1. At first, the source array ([1, 2, 3]) is sorted according to the result of the lambda function applied to the elements of the array. The result is an array [3, 2, 1].
  2. Array that is obtained on the previous step, is reversed. So, the final result is [1, 2, 3].

The lambda function can accept multiple arguments. In this case, you need to pass the arrayReverseSort function several arrays of identical length that the arguments of lambda function will correspond to. The resulting array will consist of elements from the first input array; elements from the next input array(s) specify the sorting keys. For example:

SELECT arrayReverseSort((x, y) -> y, ['hello', 'world'], [2, 1]) as res;
┌─res────────────┐
│ [hello, world] │
└────────────────┘

In this example, the array is sorted in the following way:

  1. At first, the source array ([‘hello’, ‘world’]) is sorted according to the result of the lambda function applied to the elements of the arrays. The elements that are passed in the second array ([2, 1]), define the sorting keys for corresponding elements from the source array. The result is an array [‘world’, ‘hello’].
  2. Array that was sorted on the previous step, is reversed. So, the final result is [‘hello’, ‘world’].

Other examples are shown below.

SELECT arrayReverseSort((x, y) -> y, [4, 3, 5], ['a', 'b', 'c']) AS res;
┌─res───────┐
│ [5, 3, 4] │
└───────────┘
SELECT arrayReverseSort((x, y) -> -y, [4, 3, 5], [1, 2, 3]) AS res;
┌─res───────┐
│ [4, 3, 5] │
└───────────┘

arraySlice

Returns a slice of the array.

Syntax

arraySlice(array, offset[, length])

Arguments

  • array – Array of data.
  • offset – Indent from the edge of the array. A positive value indicates an offset on the left, and a negative value is an indent on the right. Numbering of the array items begins with 1.
  • length – The length of the required slice. If you specify a negative value, the function returns an open slice [offset, array_length - length) . If you omit the value, the function returns the slice [offset, the_end_of_array] .

Returned value

  • Slice of array.

Example

SELECT arraySlice([1, 2, NULL, 4, 5], 2, 3) AS res;
┌─res──────────┐
│ [2, ᴺᵁᴸᴸ, 4] │
└──────────────┘

Array elements set to NULL are handled as normal values.

arraySort

Sorts the elements of the arr array in ascending order. If the func function is specified, sorting order is determined by the result of the func function applied to the elements of the array. If func accepts multiple arguments, the arraySort function is passed several arrays that the arguments of func will correspond to. Detailed examples are shown at the end of arraySort description.

Note that arraySort is a higher-order function. You can pass a lambda function to it as the first argument. In this case, sorting order is determined by the result of the lambda function applied to the elements of the array.

To improve sorting efficiency, the Schwartzian transform is used.
Syntax

arraySort([func,] arr, …)

Arguments

  • func - sort function.
  • array — Array.

Returned value

  • Sorted array.

Example

SELECT arraySort([1, 3, 3, 0]);
┌─arraySort([1, 3, 3, 0])─┐
│ [0, 1, 3, 3]            │
└─────────────────────────┘

Example of string values sorting:

SELECT arraySort(['hello', 'world', '!']);
┌─arraySort(['hello', 'world', '!'])─┐
│ [!, hello, world]                  │
└────────────────────────────────────┘

Consider the following sorting order for the NULL , NaN and Inf values:

SELECT arraySort([1, nan, 2, NULL, 3, nan, -4, NULL, inf, -inf]);
┌─arraySort([1, nan, 2, NULL, 3, nan, -4, NULL, inf, -inf])───────┐│ [-Inf, -4e+00, 1e+00, 2e+00, 3e+00, +Inf, NaN, NaN, ᴺᵁᴸᴸ, ᴺᵁᴸᴸ] │└─────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────┘
  • -Inf values are first in the array.
  • NULL values are last in the array.
  • NaN values are right before NULL .
  • Inf values are right before NaN .
SELECT arraySort((x) -> -x, [1, 2, 3]) as res;
┌─res───────┐
│ [3, 2, 1] │
└───────────┘

For each element of the source array, the lambda function returns the sorting key, that is, [1 –> -1, 2 –> -2, 3 –> -3]. Since the arraySort function sorts the keys in ascending order, the result is [3, 2, 1]. Thus, the (x) –> -x lambda function sets the descending order in a sorting.

The lambda function can accept multiple arguments. In this case, you need to pass the arraySort function several arrays of identical length that the arguments of lambda function will correspond to. The resulting array will consist of elements from the first input array; elements from the next input array(s) specify the sorting keys. For example:

SELECT arraySort((x, y) -> y, ['hello', 'world'], [2, 1]) as res;
┌─res────────────┐│ [world, hello] │└────────────────┘

Here, the elements that are passed in the second array ([2, 1]) define a sorting key for the corresponding element from the source array ([‘hello’, ‘world’]), that is, [‘hello’ –> 2, ‘world’ –> 1]. Since the lambda function does not use x , actual values of the source array do not affect the order in the result. So, ‘hello’ will be the second element in the result, and ‘world’ will be the first.

Other examples are shown below.

SELECT arraySort((x, y) -> y, [0, 1, 2], ['c', 'b', 'a']) as res;
┌─res───────┐
│ [2, 1, 0] │
└───────────┘
SELECT arraySort((x, y) -> -y, [0, 1, 2], [1, 2, 3]) as res;
┌─res───────┐
│ [2, 1, 0] │
└───────────┘

arraySum

Returns the sum of elements in the source array.

If the func function is specified, returns the sum of elements converted by this function.

Note that the arraySum is a higher-order function. You can pass a lambda function to it as the first argument.

Syntax

arraySum([func,] arr)

Arguments

  • func — higher-order function.
  • arr — Array.

Returned value

  • The sum of the function values (or the array sum).
    Type:
    • for decimal numbers in source array (or for converted values, if func is specified) Decimal128 Float64
    • for numeric unsigned UInt64
    • and for numeric signed Int64

Examples

SELECT arraySum([2, 3]) AS res;
┌─res─┐
│ 5   │
└─────┘
SELECT arraySum(x -> x*x, [2, 3]) AS res;
┌─res─┐
│ 13  │
└─────┘

arrayUniq

If one argument is passed, it counts the number of different elements in the array.

If multiple arguments are passed, it counts the number of different tuples of elements at corresponding positions in multiple arrays.

If you want to get a list of unique items in an array, you can use arrayReduce(‘groupUniqArray’, arr) .

Syntax

arrayUniq(arr, …)

Arguments

  • arr — Array.

Examples

SELECT arrayUniq([2, 3]) AS res;
┌─res─┐
│ 2   │
└─────┘
SELECT arrayUniq([2, 3, 3], [1, 2, 3]) AS res
┌─res─┐
│ 3   │
└─────┘

There are three different tuples (2,1),(3,2),(3,3).

countEqual

Returns the number of elements in the array equal to x. Equivalent to arrayCount (elem -> elem = x, arr).

NULL elements are handled as separate values.

Syntax

countEqual(arr, x)

Arguments

  • arr — Array.
  • x - pivot element

Returned value

  • Number of elements in the array equal to x.

Examples

SELECT countEqual([1, 2, NULL, NULL], NULL)
┌─countEqual([1, 2, NULL, NULL], NULL)─┐
│ 2                                    │
└──────────────────────────────────────┘

flatten

Converts an array of arrays to a flat array.Function:- Applies to any depth of nested arrays. - Does not change arrays that are already flat. The flattened array contains all the elements from all source arrays.

Syntax

flatten(array_of_arrays)

Alias: flatten .

Arguments

  • array_of_arrays — Array of arrays. For example, [[1,2,3], [4,5]] .

Returned value

  • The flattened array.

Examples

SELECT flatten([[[1]], [[2], [3]]]);
┌─flatten(array(array([1]), array([2], [3])))─┐
│ [1, 2, 3]                                   │
└─────────────────────────────────────────────┘

groupArrayInsertAt

Inserts a value into the array at the specified position.

Syntax

groupArrayInsertAt(default_x, size)(x, pos)

If in one query several values are inserted into the same position, the function behaves in the following ways:

  • If a query is executed in a single thread, the first one of the inserted values is used.
  • If a query is executed in multiple threads, the resulting value is an undetermined one of the inserted values.

Arguments

  • x — Value to be inserted. Expression resulting in one of the supported data types.
  • pos — Position at which the specified element x is to be inserted. Index numbering in the array starts from zero. UInt32.
  • default_x — Default value for substituting in empty positions. Optional parameter. Expression resulting in the data type configured for the x parameter. If default_x is not defined, the default values are used.
  • size — Length of the resulting array. Optional parameter. When using this parameter, the default value default_x must be specified. UInt32.

Returned value

  • Array with inserted values.

Example

SELECT groupArrayInsertAt(toString(number), number * 2) FROM numbers(5);
┌─groupArrayInsertAt(toString(number), multiply(number, 2))─┐│ ['0','','1','','2','','3','','4']                         │└───────────────────────────────────────────────────────────┘
SELECT groupArrayInsertAt('-')(toString(number), number * 2) FROM numbers(5);
┌─groupArrayInsertAt('-')(toString(number), multiply(number, 2))─┐
│ ['0','-','1','-','2','-','3','-','4']                          │
└────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────┘
SELECT groupArrayInsertAt('-', 5)(toString(number), number * 2) FROM numbers(5);
┌─groupArrayInsertAt('-', 5)(toString(number), multiply(number, 2))─┐
│ ['0','-','1','-','2']                                             │
└───────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────┘

hasAll

Checks whether one array is a subset of another.

Syntax

hasAll(set, subset)

Arguments

  • set – Array of any type with a set of elements.
  • subset – Array of any type with elements that should be tested to be a subset of set .

Return values

  • 1 , if set contains all of the elements from subset .
  • 0 , otherwise.

Peculiar properties

  • An empty array is a subset of any array.
  • Null processed as a value.
  • Order of values in both of arrays does not matter.

Examples

SELECT hasAll([], []);
┌─hasAll(array(), array())─┐
│ 1                        │
└──────────────────────────┘
SELECT hasAll([1, Null], [Null]);
┌─hasAll([1, NULL], [NULL])─┐
│ 1                         │
└───────────────────────────┘
SELECT hasAll([1.0, 2, 3, 4], [1, 3]);
┌─hasAll([1., 2, 3, 4], [1, 3])─┐
│ 1                             │
└───────────────────────────────┘
SELECT hasAll(['a', 'b'], ['a']);
┌─hasAll(['a', 'b'], ['a'])─┐
│ 1                         │
└───────────────────────────┘
SELECT hasAll([1], ['a']);
┌─hasAll([1], ['a'])─┐
│ 0                  │
└────────────────────┘
SELECT hasAll([[1, 2], [3, 4]], [[1, 2], [3, 5]]);
┌─hasAll(array([1, 2], [3, 4]), array([1, 2], [3, 5]))─┐
│ 0                                                    │
└──────────────────────────────────────────────────────┘

hasAny

Checks whether two arrays have intersection by some elements.

Syntax

hasAny(array1, array2)

Arguments

  • array1 – Array of any type with a set of elements.
  • array2 – Array of any type with a set of elements.

Return values

  • 1 , if array1 and array2 have one similar element at least.
  • 0 , otherwise.

Peculiar properties

  • Null processed as a value.
  • Order of values in both of arrays does not matter.

Examples

SELECT hasAny([1], []);
┌─hasAny([1], array())─┐
│ 0                    │
└──────────────────────┘
SELECT hasAny([Null], [Null, 1]);
┌─hasAny([NULL], [NULL, 1])─┐
│ 1                         │
└───────────────────────────┘
SELECT hasAny([-128, 1., 512], [1]);
┌─hasAny([-128, 1., 512], [1])─┐
│ 1                            │
└──────────────────────────────┘
SELECT hasAny([[1, 2], [3, 4]], ['a', 'c']);
┌─hasAny(array([1, 2], [3, 4]), ['a', 'c'])─┐
│ 0                                         │
└───────────────────────────────────────────┘
SELECT hasAll([[1, 2], [3, 4]], [[1, 2], [1, 2]]);
┌─hasAll(array([1, 2], [3, 4]), array([1, 2], [1, 2]))─┐
│ 1                                                    │
└──────────────────────────────────────────────────────┘

indexOf

Returns the index of the first ‘x’ element (starting from 1) if it is in the array, or 0 if it is not.

Syntax

indexOf(arr, x) 

Arguments

  • arr – Array of any type with a set of elements.
  • x – an Element.

Return values

  • index of the first ‘x’ element (starting from 1)

Examples

SELECT indexOf([1, 3, NULL, NULL], NULL);
┌─indexOf([1, 3, NULL, NULL], NULL)─┐
│ 3                                 │
└───────────────────────────────────┘

Elements set to NULL are handled as normal values.

length

Returns the length of a arrays.

Syntax

length(array)

Arguments

  • array – Array of any type with a set of elements.

Return values

  • length of array. UInt64

Examples

SELECT length([1,2,3]);
┌─length([1, 2, 3])─┐
│ 3                 │
└───────────────────┘
```Returns an array of `UInt` numbers from 0 to `end - 1` by 1 .

**Syntax**
<!-- Different with community -->
```sql
range(end)

Arguments

  • end — The number before which the array is constructed. Required. UInt

Returned value

  • Array of UInt numbers from 0 to end - 1 by 1 .

Implementation details

  • All arguments must be positive values.
  • An exception is thrown if the query results in arrays with a total length of more than 100,000,000 elements.

Examples

SELECT range(5);
┌─range(5)────────┐
│ [0, 1, 2, 3, 4] │
└─────────────────┘

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